OY (Chechen Muslim women) Russia CG  UKAIT 00005
Date of hearing: 02 October 2008
Date Determination notified: 22 December 2008
|Secretary of State for the Home Department||RESPONDENT|
Despite existing country guidance, there are circumstances in which a female Muslim Chechen may be at risk and may not be able to relocate within Russia.
The Previous Proceedings
"1. The appellant is a citizen of Russia. She was born in . She is nominally Muslim and ethnically Chechen. Her husband is ethnically Russian.
2. It is accepted that the appellant was detained in 2002 and again in 2006 and she was ill treated during each detention.
3. It is the respondent's case that she can return to Russia and relocate to a place of safety. This finding is support [sic] by the case of AV (IFA Mixed Ethnicity Relationship Russian/Chechen) Russia CG  UKIAT 05260 but the decision is challenged by background evidence and particularly by the expert report of Rob[ert] Chenciner.
4. Before me it was agreed that the Immigration Judge's consideration of the background material and particularly the evidence of Rob[ert] Chenciner was so inadequate that the determination was unsafe.
5. I further find that the Immigration Judge's adverse credibility findings are unsound because they are reasoned inadequately and made in the light of inadequately reasoned findings about conditions in Russia.
6. The deficiency will be remedied by further hearing.
7. The positive credibility findings will stand unless necessarily displaced by any further evidence that the parties chose [sic] to serve."
The appellant's evidence and credibility
Documents and Evidence
Evidence of Mr Robert Chenciner
"2.1.1 "Black Widows" and funding
The Appellant stated that she had been accused of being a "black widow" Chechen extremist suicide bomber.
While there is nothing unusual about seeking consolation through religion after bereavement, as her father had been killed and she and her mother had been raped by Russian police, even if she did not wear a hijab, both Russian forces and local people might have feared that the Appellant was becoming a Wahhabi suicide bomb candidate or Shahid. Black widows of Chechnya were demonised as suicide bombers by Pravda in May 2003. (As a result of the changes in Chechnya, 7 September 2004, Andrei Tsunsky, Expert Group contracted by Financial Times, How the Guerillas Lost Chechnya; Explaining the Black Widows of Chechnya, 11 December 2003, Brenda Stardom, Portugal) At the Moscow Theatre siege women with hijabs and apparently wearing explosive belts were photographed among the hostage-takers."
"2.6 Black Widows
Wherever the Appellant went in Russia, alone or with her husband, in addition to anti-Caucasian racism, she would be characterized as a potential Black Widow suicide bomber and/or Wahhabi terrorist.
The most recent attacks by Chechen black widow suicide bombers were in August-September 2004. However, as in the aftermath of 9/11, which occurred in 2001, there is constant fear and vigilance to avoid future attacks. There are two somewhat similar articles published in 2007 and 2008 on Black Widows by the respected commentator, Nabi Abdullaev, a Daghestani, working for Transparency International in US. (Women to the forefront in Chechen terrorism, 1 September 2008, Nabi Abdullaev, ISN Security Watch; Chechen Black Widows organized or driven by despair?, 2007, Nabi Abdullaev, 2007, Moscow Defense Brief 3(9), Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies (CAST), US) Also a paper by Irina Bazaria at the April 2008 Chicago conference, presumably a follow-up on a similar paper "Female Suicide Bombers: Case Study of the Chechen 'Black Widows'" which she gave there on 21 April 2006. ("Female Suicide Bombers: Case Study of the Chechen 'Black Widows'" aka "Chechen Female Suicide Bombers: A Diagnostic Approach", (when presented at another conference of American Political Science Association on 21 April 2008), 9 May 2008, I. Bazaria, APA Citation, The Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago conference April 2008) In October 2006, RFE/RL published a follow-up piece on the second anniversary of Nord-Ost theatre attack in 2004. (Russia: Nord-Ost Anniversary Recalls Ascent Of Female Suicide Bomber 27 October 2006, Irina Lagunina, RFE/ RL) It is accordingly likely that security services vigilance to prevent black widow suicide bombers continues both in Chechnya and the rest of Russia."
"2.1.2 Why Appellant would be recognized by Russian Authorities on return at the airport. This lists a combination of reasons, in addition to the background reason that president Putin thinks that UK is a haven for Chechen terrorists. (subsection 2.2 above) It could equally apply to why almost any ethnic-Chechen or former Chechen resident woman returned from UK would likely be at risk. An exception would be if the person was a supporter of the pro-Russian Kadyrovsky Chechen militia, which has not yet come across my desk.
(- Russianised feminine form ending in -ova) is an Islamic name, mainly from the Caucasus, for example Leila Yunus or Yunusova the oppositionist politician, historian and human rights activist in Azerbaijan. Olga is a Russian first name.
126.96.36.199 Risk as a returned failed asylum seeker.
When Russian citizens who do not have a passport are returned from UK, the Russian Embassy will issue them with a temporary travel document, as opposed to a few years ago when the Russians used to accept an EU extraordinary travel document issued by the UK government, which was no better for concealing the fact that the person was a failed asylum seeker. I understand from discussion with solicitors about various post-Soviet cases that the document is obtained by the following procedure, which is plausible. The Home Office contacts the Russian Embassy in London with details of the Appellant. The Appellant is then supposed to go to the embassy, which of course is legally Russian territory, to fill in form(s) giving full information on name, names of parents, former address in Russia. It is likely to be obvious to a Russian official that if a Chechen or Chechnya resident is being removed from UK, then he or she is an unsuccessful asylum claimant. This means that they have complained publicly about human rights abuses in Russia, which, to infer from the murder of Anna Politovskaya and the closure of Russian Chechen Friendship society NGO after oppression of its staff (section 1.1), to give examples from October 2006, means that as a punishment, they will be psychologically and physically abused by the Russian authorities. There is no direct evidence because I am not aware that any Chechens have been returned, and even if one was, it is unlikely that he or she would be in a position to give a free interview of what happened.
2.1.3 Leaving Russia without permission or correct documentation.
The airport authorities would want to know when she left Russia, and when they found out that she did not have a visa or other permission, she would have committed an offence and be liable for a six-month sentence. (section 3.1)"
"Sub-section 2.2 Allegations by Russian authorities that London is a recruiting ground for Chechen rebels
It is plausible that any Chechen especially a young woman whose father was killed by Russian forces and who had been repeatedly abused in a Russian SIZO detention center in 2002 and 2006, who arrived from London is considered by Russians to be a suspected terrorist and to be part of the anti-Russian propaganda war in Britain. In Russia there is a negative perception of London as a haven for Russian asylum seekers who are connected with protest and conscientious objection against the Chechen war. On 22 November 2004, Moscow Times reported on UK IAT Krotov decision. (Britain grants Russian soldier asylum, 22 November 2004, Anatoly Medetsky, The Moscow Times)"
"In the northern Caucasus, UNHCR's intervention focused on providing legal protection and housing assistance to IDPs. Until early 2007 most IDPs cited security concerns and the absence of the rule of law in Chechnya as the major impediments to return. UNHCR and its implementing partners worked with the judiciary, legal bodies and the Ombudsman's office in the region to build both capacity and trust. As a result, by the end of 2007, the major impediments for return had changed to lack of shelter and employment.
UNHCR-supported legal counselling centres provided free legal advice and lawyers to accompany complainants to the courts. The Office also worked to find legal remedies for the remaining undocumented refugees."
This report focuses on the situation of internally displaced people (IDPs) from the Chechen Republic living outside of the North Caucasus. The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) visited the Russian Federation in March 2008, and interviewed IDPs of various ethnic backgrounds and their legal representatives in seven locations. The report is based on these interviews and information publicly available on the IDMC website. The observations outlined here are consistent with information published by Russian human rights non-governmental organisations, notably the Civic Assistance Committee.
Regardless of their ethnic background, IDPs are unwilling to return to Chechnya because they believe their physical security there would be at risk, yet they struggle to settle outside the north Caucasus due to specific circumstances which they often share.
Many IDPs lack the documents necessary to lead a normal life. They struggle to acquire residence registration, internal passports and other documents necessary to access employment, services and entitlements such as government-provided housing, free medical care and pensions. The inconsistent interpretation and respect of legislation by local officials and courts makes the application process unpredictable. As a result most of the displaced work in the informal market, rent what housing they can find in the private sector, pay for all medical services and do not receive their full pension entitlements. Most have difficulty making ends meet as their income is barely enough to pay the rent, let alone cover other expenses. The issuance of documents to IDPs should be facilitated without imposing unreasonable conditions that IDPs cannot meet because they have been displaced.
IDPs are still denied lasting housing solutions despite a government property compensation and housing programme. The property compensation paid out to some IDPs has become increasingly insufficient for them to buy alternative housing. IDPs who have received this compensation have lost their status as forced migrants and so have had to leave government housing, but have been unable to buy housing with the compensation they received. For different reasons, other IDPs have been put under pressure or forced to leave their housing in the private sector. A new federal housing programme has proven unreliable in providing IDPs with permanent housing, due to lack of funds and slow implementation. Additional funds should be allocated to the programme and IDPs still in need of permanent housing should be included regardless of whether they have forced migrant status or received property compensation.
Ethnic Chechen IDPs face particular difficulties in securing rental accommodation, residence registration, forced migrant status and jobs. They have been forced to move frequently by landlords unwilling to rent to them for extended periods or register them as resident in the dwelling. Some claim they were denied forced migrant status and employment because they were from Chechnya. The freedom of movement of displaced Chechen men is limited as the police frequently check their passports on the street".
"2.1 Russia Background
There is no sign that Dmitry Medvedev, Putin's protιgι and nominee for president who took office on 7 May 2008, following a flawed election on 2 March 2008, represents any force for change with regard to this case.
In a further twist, the rapidly deteriorating relations between UK and Russia, described in section 2.7 imply that all official relations with Russia, for example return of asylum seekers have an added political dimension. These are further aspects of what several international Western commentators are debating: that Yury Baluyevsky, the Russian army chief of staff's, threat on 15 February 2007, that Moscow might unilaterally withdraw from the 1987 Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces treaty marked a return to the Cold War. During late October 2007 Putin was using Russia's veto on the UN Security Council to block UK and US efforts to apply pressure on Iran to cease developing nuclear weapon capability. The closure of the British Council is a distraction compared to military strategic and energy threats.
The context of the Appellant's Statements is plausible. Mrs Y's surname is non-Russian and Islamic, and her coming from Grozny, mean that she is accordingly recognisably Chechen or Caucasian to Russian border police and other authorities in all parts of Russian Federation or Chechnya. They do not distinguish between different Caucasian ethnicities whom they perceive as chorny blacks.
In addition she statedly was detained twice at a SIZO pre-trial detention centre in Kazan her ethnic-Russian husband's home city in 2002 and in December 2006. With regard to resettlement elsewhere in Russian Federation, it is notable that Kazan capital of Republic of Tatarstan which has a significant Muslim population of Tatars and Bashkirs, as well as Russians, with widespread intermarriage, is likely to be one of the most sympathetic places to live in Russian Federation for couples of Islamic-Orthodox mixed marriages. This evidently does not apply to Chechens such as the Appellant.
In a previous IAT report in September 2004, the Home Office confirmed that the Russian authorities refused to accept EC extraordinary travel documents (ETDs), but wanted to issue their own ETDs unless the returnee had valid Russian travel documents. To this end the Home Office were giving details to the Russian Embassy in London and/or the returnee was to fill in forms at the Russian Embassy. This would of course alert the Russian authorities that the returnee was a failed asylum seeker and give them time to check out the returnees record with the FSB in Moscow, increasing the likelihood of detention at Moscow airport. She would likely be accused of publicly slandering Russia by claiming asylum on human rights ground related to Chechnya.
The Appellant is likely at risk of detention and abuse if returned to Russia as a Chechen suspected suicide bomber "Black Widow". With regard to relocation elsewhere in Russia, in the unlikely event of her not being arrested on arrival, because of anti-Caucasian racism, xenophobia and Islamophobia, exacerbated by the long Chechen war and continuing terrorist attacks in Chechnya and elsewhere in Russian Federation, she would likely be unable to obtain a propiska resident's permit to move elsewhere in Russia. This is supported by evidence presented in section 2 which updates and reconfirms the evidence presented in the first report of April 2007. If she attempted to live without propiska which is illegal, she would be denied accommodation, employment, medical care, child care, and police protection, such as it is.
I am aware that I have a duty to the Court to be independent and I follow the recommendations regarding expert witnesses in the starred Determination of Sir Andrew Collins, President of The Immigration Appeal Tribunal, dated 21 December, 2000. I have a duty to the court to provide an impartial expert opinion and to assist the court in reaching a decision. I have neither met nor communicated with the appellant. (except over the telephone at Instructing Solicitors' office, to listen to her Russian accent) 'I believe that the facts I have stated in this report are true and that the opinion I have expressed is correct.' I have read the tests for an expert witness listed re The Ikarian Reefer and I have done my best to follow them.
Current and Continuing Country Guidance
Burden and Standard of Proof
Risk on return
Risk on the journey to Chechnya
"23. Relocation in a safe haven will not provide an alternative to seeking refuge outside the country of nationality if, albeit that there is no risk of persecution in the safe haven, other factors exist which make it unreasonable to expect the person fearing persecution to take refuge there. Living conditions in the safe haven may be attendant with dangers or vicissitudes which pose a threat which is as great or greater than the risk of persecution in the place of habitual residence. One cannot reasonably expect a city dweller to go to live in a desert in order to escape the risk of persecution. Where the safe haven is not a viable or realistic alternative to the place where persecution is feared, one can properly say that a refugee who has fled to another country is 'outside the country of his nationality by reason of a well-founded fear of persecution'.
24. If this approach is adopted to the possibility of internal relocation, the nature of the test of whether an asylum seeker could reasonably have been expected to have moved to a safe haven is clear. It involves a comparison between the conditions prevailing in the place of habitual residence and those which prevail in the safe haven, having regard to the impact that they will have on a person with he characteristics of the asylum seeker. What the test will not involve is a comparison between the conditions prevailing in the safe haven and those prevailing in the country in which asylum is sought ."
In August 2002 Zyazikov said that 90,000 of the 157,000 Chechen refugees were left after 27,000 'voluntarily' returned to Chechnya during the preceding 15 months, ".
"Local authorities throughout Russian are pressuring IDPs from Chechnya to return to Chechnya, even just to obtain an internal passport (i.e. a valid ID), which under Russian law any Russian citizen should be able to obtain at his or her current place of residence. Many IDPs choosing to leave the region and settle elsewhere in the Russian Federation regularly face serious discrimination, hostility and even violence."
Assessment of the specific claim
Senior Immigration Judge Moulden
|Documents relating to this appellant||Documents relating to this appellant||Documents relating to this appellant|
|17 April 2007||Appellant OY||Witness statement|
|13 April 2007||Robert Chenciner||Country expert report with reference to this appellant|
|09 September 2008||Robert Chenciner||Updated country expert report with reference to this appellant|
|Country background documents||Country background documents||Country background documents|
|Undated||Wikipedia.com||Entry on Ramzan Kadyrov|
|Undated||Russian Federation||The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation|
|Undated||IBRU University of Durham||Map of the Caucasus and central Asia|
|Undated||GUGK, Moscow||Extracts from Atlas Kavkaz|
|05 February 1990||Time.com||Soviet Union occupational disease|
|20 January 2000||Human Rights Watch||Rape allegations surface in Chechnya|
|30 March 2000||Human Rights Watch||More evidence of rape by Russian forces in Chechnya|
|21 August 2000||UNHCR||Guidelines on asylum seekers from Chechnya|
|20 April 2001||The Initiative Group, Common Action||Open appeal to the President of the Russian Federation|
|2002||Moscow Helsinki Group||Living conditions in penitentiaries|
|January 2002||UNHCR||Asylum seekers from the Russian Federation in the context of the situation in Chechnya
(introduction and conclusions)
|10 January 2002||Human Rights Watch||Russia Federation: Serious violations of women's human rights in Chechnya|
|25 January 2002||Amnesty International||Russian Federation: Women and girls daily victims in the cycle of violence and impunity|
|18 March 2002||Human Rights Watch||Memorandum to the UN Commission on Human Rights|
|10 April 2002||Human Rights Watch||Russia: Investigate sexual violence by troops in Chechnya|
|February 2003||UNHCR||Asylum seekers from the Russian Federation in the context of the situation in Chechnya|
|05 February 2003||UNHCR||Letter|
|06 February 2003||IWPR||The mental scars of Chechnya's children|
|20 February 2003||UNHCR||Letter|
|13 March 2003||BBC News||Palestinians get Saddam funds|
|29 April 2003||The Chechen Times||UN denies human rights violations in Chechnya! List of people who are refused justice after death|
|May 2003||Campaign against Sanctions on Iraq CASI||Payments to Palestinians|
|26 September 2003||Prima News Agency||Pogroms of Chechens in Kabardino-Balkaria|
|11 December 2003||Brenda Stardom||Explaining the Black Widows of Chechnya|
|15 January 2004||Norwegian Refugee Council||IDPs in northern Caucasus endure violence and destitution|
|16 January 2004||Relief Web||Russia to shut down Chechen refugee camps ahead of presidential vote|
|29 January 2004||Human Rights Watch||Briefing to the 60th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights|
|01 March 2004||Amnesty International||Statement on the situation of Chechen asylum-seekers|
|12 April 2004||Human Rights Watch||Russia: Nine civilians extra-judicially executed in Chechnya|
|23 June 2004||BBC News||Ingushetia mourns rebels' victims|
|07 September 2004||Andrei Tsunsky, expert||As a result of the changes in Chechnya|
|17 September 2004||Webster Griffin Tarpley||Russians blast US-UK sponsorship of Chechen terror extracts only|
|26 September 2004||The Telegraph||Moscow steps up its reign of terror in Chechnya after the horrors of Beslan siege|
|01 October 2004||Christian Science Monitor||Ethnic Chechens face revenge attacks in Moscow|
|22 October 2004||UNHCR||Position regarding asylum seekers and refugees from the Chechen Republic, Russian Federation|
|Summer 2005||Middle East Quarterly||How Chechnya became a breeding ground for terror|
|March 2005||Human Rights Watch||Worse than a war: 'Disappearances' in Chechnya a crime against humanity|
|March 2005||Kate Desormeau||The Outside Inside: Chechen IDPs, Identity Documents and the Right to Free Movement in the Russian Federation|
|27 May 2005||Prague Watchdog||Mop-up takes place in Martan-Chu|
|17 June 2005||Radio Free Europe||Pro-Moscow Chechen official confirms atrocities|
|30 June 2005||IPS News Agency||Chechnya: 'Dark' record on disappearances brought into the light|
|05 July 2005||Prague Watchdog||Spate of abductions of women in Chechnya|
|September 2005||Human Rights Centre Memorial||Human rights violations during anti-terrorist operations in the Republic of Ingushetia (introduction)|
|17 September 2005||Voice of America||Upsurge in attacks in regions near Chechnya, separatist leader killed|
|14 October 2005||IWPR||Counting the cost of Nalchik's 24-hour war|
|04 November 2005||Radio Free Europe||Nalchik raids trigger new wave of harassment against Muslims|
|08 November 2005||Amnesty International||Russian Federation: 'Disappearances' and abductions in the Chechen Republic|
|July 2005 - February 2006||Svetlana Gannushkina, The Memorial HRC||On the situation of Chechens outside Chechnya|
|2006||UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO)||Human Rights Annual Report 2006: Russia|
|25 May 2006||IWPR||Chechnya: Living with a vengeance|
|01 June 2006||Human Rights Centre Memorial (Russia)||Special operation in Stanitsa Nesterovskaya of Ingushetia: Security servicemen publicly commit a summary execution|
|27 July 2006||Reuters Foundation||European Court condemns Russia in Chechen case|
|10 August 2006||BBC Monitoring Central Asia||Mass arrests in Chechnya after pro-Moscow police desert to rebels|
|04 September 2006||BBC News||Russian town hit by race violence|
|05 September 2006||Radio Free Europe||Violence leaves two dead in Karelia|
|06 September 2006||Radio Free Europe||Russia uneasy quiet continues in Kondopoga|
|27 September 2006||Prague Watchdog||Hostage-taking still rife in Chechnya|
|12 October 2006||Voice of America News||US on Politkovskaya murder|
|12 October 2006||UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office||Human Rights Annual Report 2006: Russia|
|13 October 2006||Amnesty International||Russian Federation: Russian Chechen Friendship Society closed under new NGO law|
|27 October 2006||Radio Free Europe||Russia: Nord-Ost anniversary recalls ascent of female suicide bomber|
|14 November 2006||Home Office||Operational Guidance Note on the Russia Federation|
|03 December 2006||Boston.com||Peace in Chechnya comes at brutal cost SP68|
|2007||Nabi Abdullaev||Chechen 'Black Widows' organised or driven by despair?|
|2007||UNHCR||Global report Russian Federation|
|2007||US State Department||Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2007: Russia|
|06 January 2007||Prague Watchdog||Practice of extortion at 'Kavkaz' checkpoint stops|
|23 January 2007||Prague Watchdog||Russian soldiers conduct 'mop-up' in Serzhen-Yurt|
|19 January 2007||Home Office||COIS Report on Russia|
|02 February 2007||Union of Councils for Jews in the Former Soviet Union||Murders and abductions continue in Chechnya|
|01 March 2007||BBC News||Torture 'systematic' in Chechnya|
|14 March 2007||Amnesty International||Russian Federation must end torture, ill-treatment, 'disappearances' and arbitrary detention in Chechnya|
|23 March 2007||ECRE||Guidelines on the treatment of Chechen IDPs, asylum seekers and refugees in Europe|
|23 May 2007||Amnesty International||Russian Federation: What justice for Chechnya's disappeared?|
|30 May 2007||OHCHR||Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance on his mission to the Russian Federation|
|04 June 2007||Prague Watchdog||Mop-up in Nazran|
|06 June 2007||Radio Free Europe||Hundreds rally against Chechens in southern Russia|
|12 July 2007||IWPR (UK)||Upsurge of fighting in Chechnya|
|03 September 2007||BBC News||New data on Russia race attacks|
|01 November 2007||Amnesty International||Day of National Unity a day to challenge racism|
|25 January 2008||Amnesty International||Urgent Action 22 August: 147 internally displaced families reportedly told to leave at short notice|
|03 February 2008||Prague Watchdog||Slayings of innocent people continue in Ingushetia|
|25 February 2008||Prague Watchdog||Self-styled ID checks underway on the eve of elections in Chechnya|
|11 March 2008||US State Department||Country Report on Human Rights Practices (extracts)|
|20 March 2008||Radio Free Europe||Chechen resistance launches major attack|
|15 April 2008||Human Rights Watch||Council of Europe failing on Russia|
|22 April 2008||UNHCR / ACCORD||Chechnya: Summary of the ACCORD-UNHCR Country of Origin Information Seminar, Vienna, 18 October 2007|
|05 May 2008||Radio Free Europe||Five police killed by roadside bomb in Grozny|
|25 June 2008||Human Rights Watch||'As if they fell from the sky': Counterinsurgency, rights violations and rampant impunity in Ingushetia (summary only)|
|26 June 2008||North Caucasus Weekly||Increase in Chechen attacks linked to broader North Caucasus strategy|
|30 June 2008||IDMC (Norwegian Refugee Council)||Struggling to integrate: Displaced people from Chechnya living in other areas of the Russian Federation|
|06 August 2008||Amnesty International||Urgent Action 218 August (abduction of Makhmadsalors Delilovich Masaev)|
|07 August 2008||North Caucasus Weekly||Chechen and Federal authorities declare Sulim Yamadaev a fugitive|
|12 August 2008||SOVA Centre||Compliance of the Russian Federation with the Convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination: Russian NGOs' alternative report|
|15 August 2008||North Caucasus Weekly||Wanted Chechen commander leads his battalion against Georgian forces|
|18 August 2008||Xinhua News Agency||Sarkozy urges rapid Russian withdrawal from Georgia|
|26 August 2008||Times Online||Dimitri Medvedev raises spectre of new Cold War|
|27 August 2008||FIDH||UN Committee demands to halt increasing racial discrimination and violent practices against ethnic minorities|
|01 September 2008||Nabi Abdullaev||Women to the forefront in Chechen terrorism|
|02 September 2008||Committee to Protect Journalists||Website owner killed in police custody in Ingushetia|
|03 September 2008||BBC news||New data on Russian race attacks|
|03 September 2008||Efluxmedia.com||Reporter shot dead in Russia's restive Dagestan province|
|06 September 2008||Kavkaz Center||Cheney visits Ukraine amid crisis|
|07 September 2008||Kavkaz Center||Vladimir Putin set to bait US with nuclear aid for Tehran|
|23 September 2008||BBC News||Ingushetia abuses 'may spark war'|